Business Analytics Project at Digital Ad Agency Leads to Promotion & Google Award

The creative function is what most people think of when you say, “ad agency,” and what attracts people to the field. Although SEO and engaging people through social media are the core competencies, data – if used well – makes a big competitive difference. In an age of all-digital advertising, Jeremy Bice (MBA, ’17) says “everything is data-driven.” Agencies need to crunch the data with great precision to see what ads are working with indicators like cost-per-click, as well as conversions and return-on-ad-spend (ROAS).

Bice started off at Logical Position, a digital marketing agency, as an account manager but had an interest in data that stretched back to his work in signals intelligence in the Marines. He moved from accounts to the paid search team, which relies on Google’s AdWords for its clients’ digital marketing data.

Customer retention is critical to any business, and the agency wanted ways to improve the numbers. “We hypothesized that we might find data hidden in our in-house data and Google AdWords about which clients were in jeopardy and what to do about it,” says Bice. For his efforts and those on his teams, Google gave the agency an award for integrating and leveraging its data.

Discoveries about the Client Life Cycle

Using business analytics skills he learned at Golden Gate University, such as Python and R programming, Bice discovered that there was a relationship between clients’ spend level and the client life-cycle — which spans onboarding to multiyear relationships. The results revealed that clients were most likely to become more engaged or drop at certain stages. The team also discovered that if clients made it past a certain lifespan milestone, their customer lifespan would rise significantly. That’s where services could be bolstered.

Bice and the team also integrated customer interactions with staff with the AdWords data—and did a text analysis on the staff notes with Python. Staff also rated how the calls went on a scale from 1-5, adding another dimension to discover customer engagement.


“…when I look at a data visualization with someone at work,
they immediately say one thing, but I can offer an interpretation based on the business processes as a whole. That is very useful.”

—Jeremy Bice (MBA, ’17)


Predictive Analysis

After standardizing and consolidating data, adding new fields to supplement Google data, Logical Position had what Bice calls a “risk profiler.” He set up a predictive model that allows them to alert account managers about which accounts may not be being served the best and determine what corrective action could be taken.

Business Analytics and Customer Segments

Bice also uncovered data that showed unexpected connections between customer segments and performance. “We did a deep dive for average monetary performance on accounts when we threw in the AdWords metrics.” Through this in-house data analysis, they discovered that fluctuations in revenue were much more useful in predicting cancellations in large clients than small ones.

Making New Business Decisions

Logical Position made company decisions based on their interpretations, making this a true business analytics project. The difference between small and large clients led the agency to change how they served smaller clients — improving onboarding would increase revenue.

Soft skills that Bice learned at GGU also come into play during the project: “At GGU, I learned how to research businesses and got a lot out of class discussions about how they work and use their data. Now, when I look at a data visualization with someone at work, they immediately say one thing, but I can give them an alternative explanation. I can offer an interpretation based on the business processes as a whole. That is very useful.”

Next Step

On the strength of his customer-retention project, the agency created a new position for him in a new department called Operations Development that creates internal tools and processes to help the company scale efficiently. Bice passes on recommendations to programmers; and, with management support, they develop new applications.

The next step for Bice, he says, is to dig deeper into a data science role as his career progresses.


Request information about the MBA or MS in Data Analytics at GGU >>

International Graduate Students at GGU in San Francisco

In honor of International Education Week, we’d like to share the stories of students from overseas who are in graduate school at GGU’s San Francisco campus. Among the international students from over 46 countries are:

Tsovinar Yenokyan (MS, Marketing ’18), Armenia

international-armenian-student

Tsovinar has been driven to succeed from an early age. She started to work at age 16, which was not common in her native country of Armenia, and began what she calls her, “long-lasting relationship with marketing.” Two years later, she took a Brand Manager position at Starcom Mediavest in Armenia.

Each student has an advisor and mine has been helpful in answering questions about student Visas and my curriculum.

Tsovinar’s story >>


Jatin Jaiswal (MBA, Marketing Concentration ’17), India

Jatin made his way from India to Golden Gate University in part to take advantage of San Francisco’s innovative technology environment. He landed an internship at a local start-up called FinTech School where he applies skills he picked up at GGU such as SEO, email marketing, and social media. But he says a big part of his education has been learning how to collaborate with people with different backgrounds and personalities.

Steve Jobs said that people are there to help you and all you have to do is ask. In San Francisco, I had coffee with people from Salesforce just by writing them through LinkedIn.  You may not get a job, but it leads to the next thing.

Jatin’s story >>


Zhaoqian (Anna) Zeng (MBA, Supply Chain ’17), China

Zhaoqian (Anna) Zeng is from China where she earned a bachelor’s degree in Law from Shanghai’s Customs College. After working in import and export operations, she wanted to expand her career. Golden Gate University provided a very comprehensive program in Supply Chain that covered the aspects of operations she found the most interesting: strategy and tactical operations.

San Francisco is a very welcoming place and people from different cultures feel comfortable here. There are young, energetic people here who are absorbing new information every day. These are the reasons I want to stay here after I complete my degree.

Anna’s story >>


Hussain Aziz Sham (MS, Marketing ’19), India / Dubai

Hussain a member of the Student IT Advisory Board, a Graduate Student Assistant in the GGU eLearning Department, and Vice President of the GGU Marketing Club. The members of the club participated in the Marketing Edge competition this year, which challenges student teams to produce a marketing plan to solve a real marketing problem posed by a real company.

 

At GGU, you will have the chance to meet, collaborate and make friendship with students who come from all over the world – India, the Middle East, China, and others — and bring their unique experience into classroom discussions and projects.

Hussain’s story >>


Learn how GGU supports its international students from start to finish >>

Dr. Nabanita Talukdar Involves Students in Sustainable-Fashion Research

AGAATI offers sustainable, luxury womenswear and is committed to various sustainable initiatives such as designing collections made only from natural fibers, following a zero-waste philosophy, and supporting fair trade. A Silicon Valley start-up, AGAATI has also made a commitment to contribute a portion of their profits to non-profit organizations addressing the impact of “fast fashion.” As the company is one the few luxury fashion companies focused on sustainability, AGAATI sponsored research at GGU to understand motives behind purchasing decisions in this category.

The qualitative and quantitative studies were spearheaded by Dr. Nabanita Talukdar, whose research primarily focuses on materialism and other consumption motives associated with luxury brands.  The project had three parts:

  • A focus group of nine female participants drawn from a pool of GGU alumni, employees, and students–many of whom showed an interest in sustainable luxury brands
  • A pilot survey, based on focus group results, that was sent to 247 female subjects in San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, and Chicago
  • A luxury brand experiment using 56 GGU students to establish the causality among the variables driving the purchase of sustainable luxury brands

“At GGU we are committed to bringing real-world knowledge to the classroom. By participating in the focus group and the experiment, students learned about how such methodological approaches can be applied to business research.”

—Dr. Nabanita Talukdar


In this third project, Dr. Talukdar was assisted by doctoral student Michael Lin from GGU’s DBA program. Lin’s research focuses on exploring the economic trends in the emerging industries of eSports, virtual reality, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence.

“I would like to thank AGAATI as well as the university students, faculty, and staff for their support,” says Talukdar. “My students found this experience enjoyable and educational. At GGU we are committed to bringing real-world knowledge to the classroom. By participating in the focus group and the experiment, students learned about how such methodological approaches can be applied to business research. I am grateful to AGAATI for giving GGU the opportunity to work with them, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Bay Area business community with our research expertise and resources.”

The students also got an opportunity to participate in a workshop on SPSS – a widely used tool in business to analyze research findings – and experimental design. This gave the students an opportunity to understand experimental methodology from Dr. Shubin (Lance) Yu, Postdoctoral researcher, Peking University, China.



Watch the video to learn more about the research project.


Anand Pradhan,  Co-founder of AGAATI, says: “We are excited about the research partnership with GGU  on understanding and driving sustainability into the luxury fashion market.  We thank the professors and students for the strong research support. We are confident that the research results which we obtained through GGU will further help us in successfully continuing our mission to design the most fashionable clothes in the sustainable category. AGAATI’s collections are already generating buzz because of the significant interest from media and customers.” You can keep up with AGAATI’s Instagram account via Yooying.

About Nabanita Talukdar

Nabanita Talukdar holds a DBA in Marketing (’16) and an MS in Finance (’09) from Golden Gate University. She also holds an MBA in Marketing and a BS in Geology, Physics & Math from universities in India. Her research interests include luxury brands and digital marketing, social media analytics and luxury marketing, and the use of marketing science in luxury marketing. She has presented her research in both domestic and international conferences.  Outside of academia, she has worked in industry — conducting quantitative and qualitative analyses for L’Oreal, Procter & Gamble, First Republic Bank, and Actelion Pharmaceuticals. She is involved with social causes dedicated to providing educational opportunities to underprivileged populations.


Request information about GGU’s Marketing programs >>

GGU Faculty Member Blodwen Tarter Honored by GGU and Marketing Edge

Dr. Blodwen Tarter, Professor and Chair of Marketing and Public Relations at GGU, has been writing award-winning case studies in marketing since 2007.  Case studies ask students to analyze real-world situations and develop solutions in order to apply what they learn in classes. Her work has been consistently recognized by Marketing Edge, a national nonprofit organization committed to introducing and engaging professors and university students in the thriving business of marketing.  At GGU’s Spring 2017 commencement ceremony, she was presented with the annual Scholarship award, as selected by her peers on the full-time faculty.

This recognition was based on Dr. Tarter’s long-term track record of published outstanding case studies. In 2016, she was awarded two prizes by Marketing Edge in their annual case-writing competition, winning a Silver award for a case on Save the Redwoods’ campaign “Take a walk in the redwoods—on us!” and a Bronze award for a co-authored case about Pacific Gas and Electric. Here is an example of her work from Save the Redwoods’ campaign:

Save the Redwoods League is a nonprofit dedicated to preserving the diminishing redwood forests of California. In 2015, outdoor goods retailer REI launched a marketing campaign #OptOutside, which encouraged consumers to enjoy the outdoors on the day after Thanksgiving, rather than to indulge in the shopping frenzy known as Black Friday. Save the Redwoods League leapt on the opportunity to leverage REI’s national campaign by developing Free Redwood Parks Day, offering free park passes for all 49 redwood state parks for the day after Thanksgiving.  The case study details the speedy planning and implementation of the event, provides examples of the marketing assets, and shows how metrics confirmed the enormous success of the #OptOutside#IntoTheRedwoods. campaign. Students are then challenged to develop a campaign for the following year.

A key collaborator, the Redwood League’s Chief Communications Officer, Jennifer Benito-Kowalksi, is a 2004 graduate of GGU (MS, Integrated Marketing Communications) and a veteran of Dr. Tarter’s classes. The case features videos interviewing Benito-Kowalski.  An outdoor enthusiast, Blodwen was excited to work on this project.

More Awards in 2017

This year, Dr. Tarter was notified by Marketing Edge that a case about Shinola, a lifestyle brand headquartered in Detroit, is another award-winner. She and co-author Matt Fisher, an adjunct faculty member and student in GGU’s Doctor of Business Administration program, will present the case in October at the Marketing Edge annual conference.

We asked Blodwen Tarter to describe the attributes of an effective case study. She listed:

Builds judgment skills by including ambiguities
Has a well-written and compelling story
Requires solutions from the students without a single “right” answer
Often includes extraneous information to encourage critical thinking
Incorporates real data, if possible, about the subject organization
Demonstrates relevance to current marketing issues and practices

About Blodwen Tarter, PhD

Blodwen Tarter has more than 25 years of management experience in marketing, product and systems development (including website development and e-commerce), strategic planning, and operations management with an emphasis on financial services and information technology. Her employers and clients have included Mead (now RockTenn), Knight-Ridder, Charles Schwab, Ziff Corporation, Wells Fargo, and several Silicon Valley start-ups. At Golden Gate University, she teaches a variety of marketing courses, including marketing management, direct and database marketing, digital marketing and e-commerce, as well as new product development and consumer behavior.

Dr. Tarter holds a BA with Distinction and MA from Stanford University, an MBA in marketing and finance from the University of Chicago, and a PhD from Golden Gate University. She chairs the Marketing and Public Relations department in the Ageno School of Business and has received several teaching awards.


Request information about GGU’s Marketing  degrees and certificates >>

Building Leadership and Teamwork Skills at Golden Gate University

Jatin Jaiswal (MBA, Marketing Concentration ’17) made his way from India to Golden Gate University in part to take advantage of San Francisco’s innovative technology environment. He landed an internship at a local start-up called FinTech School where he applies skills he picked up at GGU such as SEO, email marketing, and social media. But he says a big part of his education has been learning how to collaborate with people with different backgrounds and personalities.

“The team exercises in my Team Dynamics and Managerial Analysis class were transformational for me, and I could see other people change too,” he says. The class was taught by Heather Cowan, who has held senior positions at Genentech and Autodesk where she currently serves as ‎Director of Learning and Organization Development. The students were assigned to groups of six with a balance of personality styles as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Each group had to work through a project starting with an informal kickoff meeting and ending with a group decision on a single course of action.

Jaiswal had his turn to lead the group during the project. “As a leader, you have to get the conversation started and keep it going. For example, you have to watch people that are introverted and bring them into the dynamic and be aware of their tendency to be agreeable. You learn to see the other side of a conversation and find out if there is something blocking progress—and then unblock it! I handle situations differently after taking the class. I take more time to think about what I am doing and understand my colleagues better.”

“The class was transformational for me, and I could see other people change too.”

As for the future, Jaiswal sees a huge opportunity presented by the San Francisco Bay Area tech environment for providing specialized consulting services to companies. “My business partner is from the Ukraine, and his culture is different, but we are working together towards a common goal.”

Jaiswal on Networking in San Francisco

“Steve Jobs said that people are there to help you and all you have to do is ask. In San Francisco, I had coffee with people from Salesforce just by writing them through LinkedIn.  You may not get a job, but it leads to the next thing. San Francisco is a very welcoming city, and you have access to all kinds of companies like Microsoft, Uber, and Tesla.”


Request information about GGU’s MBA program >>

Golden Gate University Ranked #1 in US for Adult Learners for Second Consecutive Year

For the second consecutive year, Washington Monthly ranks Golden Gate University America’s #1 School for Adult Learners in its annual College Guide and Rankings.

How GGU Was Chosen

To compile the rankings, Washington Monthly reviewed data from the Department of Education’s Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) survey, the department’s new College Scorecard database and the College Board’s Annual Survey of Colleges.

The metrics that determined GGU’s rating include:

  • ease of transfer/enrollment
  • flexibility of programs
  • services available for adult learners
  • percent of adult students (age 25+)
  • mean earnings of adult students ten years after entering college
  • loan repayment of adult students five years after entering repayment
  • tuition and fees for in-district students

Read the article in Washington Monthly >>

Driven to Succeed: Armenian Student Continues Marketing Career in San Francisco

Tsovinar Yenokyan is a student in Golden Gate University’s Master of Science in Marketing Program (’18).


Tsovinar Yenokyan has been driven to succeed from an early age. She started to work at age 16, which was not common in her native country of Armenia, and began what she calls her, “long-lasting relationship with marketing.” Two years later, she took a Brand Manager position at Starcom Mediavest in Armenia. At 21, Tsovinar launched a marketing agency based on forward-thinking “lifestyle” targeting. While earning an MBA at American University of Armenia, she met a classmate and together they opened a bakery and café called “Cupcake Place.”

Tsovinar decided to come to GGU in San Francisco to get a master’s degree in marketing. “I came to San Francisco to get new perspectives, gain more knowledge, and realize my ambitions. San Francisco is a great generator of tech innovation that impacts the entire world. San Francisco, particularly downtown, is a great place to make professional connections and build a career.”

international-armenian-student
Tsovinar outside GGU in downtown San Francisco.

A Real-World Education at Golden Gate University

“I love my school,” Tsovinar says. “GGU has great professors. Most importantly, they are professionals who bring real-life experiences to the class.” For example, her Data Analytics course was taught by Dr. Nabanita Talukdar who has conducted quantitative and qualitative analyses for L’Oreal, Procter & Gamble, and other major companies.

In the Data Analytics class, Tsovinar created a quantitative report focusing on Airbnb units using statistical indicators such as which San Francisco neighborhoods have the highest demand, consumer satisfaction numbers, and rental prices. Through using a programming language called R, Tsovinar and her peer team created a prediction model for hosts to estimate the fair price of their rental properties.

GGU has great professors. Most importantly, they are professionals who bring real-life experiences to the class.

Inspiration in Armenia

Tsovinar credits the launch of her career at 16 to her mother, who was working on becoming a laser physicist until the Soviet Union collapsed. Her mother began a second career as a market developer for Coca-Cola and advanced to become the company’s CEO for Armenia. She then took the job of CEO of Armenia Wine.  “Armenia is famous for world-class wineries and Armenians are probably the most hospitable people in the world; we like to make each person that visits our country or our home feel special. You can ask my boyfriend about Armenian hospitality; he gained eight pounds from my mother’s cooking.”

On Being an International Student

“GGU is a perfect place for international students. Each student has an advisor and mine has been helpful in answering questions about student Visas and my curriculum. San Francisco is a city with its own heart and soul. I love this city. I have never seen such a contrast of people with so many different interests and backgrounds in one place. It’s a warm and welcoming place.”


Request information about GGU’s Master OF SCIENCE in Marketing PROGRAM  >>

Netflix Marketing Expert Talks Shop with Students in a GGU Business Analytics Class

A case study on the data analytics successes of Netflix came to life with a visit to a Business Analytics class by Andrew Massena, who serves as Senior Technical Project Manager at Netflix. Massena came by at the invitation of Tsovinar Yenokyan, a student in the Master of Science in Integrated Marketing Communications program (’18).

Massena presented on the topic of Marketing Analytics, and the class participated in a discussion about the Netflix Leading with Data initiative. Netflix uses algorithms to help predict user needs and behavior. Visiting Assistant Professor and Director of Math Programs Dr. Nabanita Talukdar (and the class instructor) observes that: “Netflix has thrived because of its superior customer data and analytics. Data analytics gives Netflix the ability to predict what customers might want and provides an understanding of consumer trends.”

What I learned in the class, such as using the R data-analysis tool, will apply to my work on day one.
–Tsovinar Yenokyan
MS, Integrated Marketing Communications (’18)

Over the last six years, Massena has managed multi-team efforts such as launches in France, Germany, Australia, Japan, and worldwide. His areas of responsibility included ensuring proper catalog encoding and deployment, certifying region-specific configurations, new language support, and App submissions. Last year, Massena managed the effort of Netflix to enable downloading of content to mobile devices. His primary job is running the Netflix NRDP (Netflix Ready Device Platform) Program. He coordinates a cross-functional effort to deliver the latest version of the SDK to device partners (Sony, Samsung, LG, and others) on an annual basis.

Tsovinar Yenokyan, Student (5th from left), Nabanita Talukdar, Instructor (6th from left), and Andrew Massena, Senior Technical Project Manager at Netflix (7th from left)

Yenokyan says: “I started my own marketing firm in Armenia, and came to the US to expand my career and learn new skills. I want to continue my marketing career, and I need to be able to analyze data no matter where I go. For example, if you have a large customer data set, you need to know exactly who you want to reach. What I learned in the class, such as using the R data-analysis tool, will apply to my work on day one.”

About the Business Analytics Course

The Business Analytics course’s focus is the practice of business-oriented analytics using statistical methods using the R statistical software. The course introduces analytical techniques applicable for solving common business problems, techniques to analyze social media, and techniques to study data on Web and app users. Students are expected to acquire practical knowledge of computing and interpreting – correlations, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, t-test, regressions analysis, cluster analysis, statistical significance, run power analysis and compute effect size. During the course, apart from learning statistics and software R, students will be introduced to the concept of Application program interface (API) in the context of data retrieval from Twitter, Facebook, and Google Analytics. Upon the course completion students expected to be able to select the right statistical method corresponding to the business problem. Compute and interpret results of a statistical analysis and produce practical business recommendations.

REQUEST INFORMATION ABOUT GGU’s DATA ANALYTICS PROGRAMS AND CONCENTRATIONS >>

Golden Gate University Students Present Mobile Marketing Plan to the Golden State Warriors

The Golden State Warriors have won the 2017 NBA Championship! We’d like to take this opportunity to provide an example of the strong relationship between the Golden State Warriors and Golden Gate University – Proud University Partner of the Golden State Warriors.

In Spring Term of 2016, a team of GGU students taking a graduate-level Mobile Marketing class presented ideas to Warriors Leadership for improving the team’s mobile app (Android / iOS). The project included direct interaction with Warriors management who provided the students with an inside look at mobile marketing and the changes in the mobile technology landscape brought on by data and business analytics.

GGU instructor Goldie Aranha Viegas challenged students to develop ideas for an app based on the game-day journey of a fan – from download, to tip-off, to post-game. Like many instructors, Viegas works in the field as Senior Mobile Manager at VF Corporation: an apparel company that offers iconic brands such as Vans and Timberland. The project was a present-day scenario in which students had to provide ideas that were achievable and realistic.

“The people from the Golden State Warriors and GGU made this a journey to remember. This project got me closer to Dub Nation than I was before, and proved to be a great learning experience.”

—Farhad Kazi (MS Marketing, 2016)

Then student and now alumnus Farhad Kazi (MS Marketing, 2016) comments: “As in many GGU classes, our instructor was a working professional, which added important value by directing our project, providing mentorship, and creating an experience of real-world learning,”

The six-member team included students from China, India, Colombia, and the United States. The group had prior work experience in marketing which allowed them to create a solid marking plan in all aspects.

The group studied successful mobile campaigns launched by other companies and conducted a survey of Golden State Warriors fans. Social media features were an important consideration because Golden State Warrior fans are highly active and engaged on social platforms. The recommendation included social sharing, paid, unpaid and earned digital marketing tactics, app analytics, and fan behavior.

“Mobile Marketing had the elements of a real-world professional experience, as we had to follow a tight deadline and create a comprehensive plan,” says Kazi. “We not only had to convey information, but also give a live presentation intended to persuade a Golden State Warriors marketing executive to implement it.”

After graduation, Farhad Kazi found work as a Communication Analyst at Cisco. “The people from the Golden State Warriors and GGU made this a journey to remember. This project got me closer to Dub Nation than I was before, and proved to be a great learning experience.”

Farhad Kazi: My Experience in the Mobile Marketing Class

  • Team environment
  • Real-life challenge that is relevant to future work assignments
  • Diverse environment that helps generate ideas
  • Professional instructor providing an up-to date scenario
  • Assignments relevant to future work assignments
  • Mentoring and networking opportunities
  • Taking in to account the most recent developments in mobile marketing

Learn more about GGU’s Master of Science in Integrated Marketing Communications and Master of Science in Marketing programs.

GGU Professor Presents Social Media and Luxury Brands Research at the Mystique of Luxury Brands Conference

Nabanita
Golden Gate University Assistant Professor Nabanita Talukdar recently traveled to Seoul, South Korea to present a luxury branding research paper at The Mystique of Luxury Brands Conference.  Dr. Talukdar’s paper, “Tweets, Retweets, and Luxury Connoisseurs: An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Tweet Volume and Stock Prices for Luxury Brands in the US,” is based on her Golden Gate University doctoral dissertation.  Dr. Talukdar’s focus area of research is primarily in the area of luxury brands’ online space, and her work integrates social media analytics, digital marketing, and marketing science.

The Mystic of Luxury Brands conference was organized by Australia’s Luxury Branding Research Cluster at Curtin University and the Korean Scholars of Marketing Science.  This two‑day conference forges links between industry and academia within the luxury brands industry and promotes academic and practitioner collaboration in the area of luxury branding. The conference attracted 120 industry and academic presenters from around the world and covered a wide range of luxury brand topics:  beauty and wellness, gastronomy, lifestyle and culture, social media, strategies against counterfeiting, marketing, and consumer behavior.

Dr. Talukdar’s paper was selected through a competitive, peer-review process and showcased her application of quantitative analysis of social media and firm financial performance metrics to U.S. luxury brands.

About Nabanita Talukdar

Nabanita Talukdar holds a DBA in Marketing (’16) and an MS in Finance (’09) from Golden Gate University. She also holds an MBA in Marketing and a BS in Geology, Physics & Math from universities in India. Her research interests include luxury brands and digital marketing, social media analytics and luxury marketing, and the use of marketing science in luxury marketing. She has presented her research in both domestic and international conferences.  Outside of academia, she has worked in industry — conducting quantitative and qualitative analyses for L’Oreal, Procter & Gamble, First Republic Bank, and Actelion Pharmaceuticals. She enjoys swimming, traveling, and watching movies, and is involved with social causes dedicated to providing educational opportunities to underprivileged populations.